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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS

Computing machines can be classified in many ways and these classifications depend on their functions and definitions. They can be classified by the technology from which they were constructed, the uses to which they are put, their capacity or size, the era in which they were used, their basic operating principle and by the kinds of data they process. Some of these classification techniques are discussed as follows:

Classification by Technology

This classification is a historical one and it is based on what performs the computer operation, or the technology behind the computing skill.

I FLESH: Before the advent of any kind of computing device at all, human beings performed computation by themselves. This involved the use of fingers, toes and any other part of the body.

II WOOD: Wood became a computing device when it was first used to design the abacus. Shickard in 1621 and Polini in 1709 were both instrumental to this development.

III METALS: Metals were used in the early machines of Pascal, Thomas, and the production versions from firms such as Brundsviga, Monroe, etc

IV ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES: As differential analyzers, these were present in the early machines of Zuse, Aiken, Stibitz and many others

V ELECTRONIC ELEMENTS: These were used in the Colossus, ABC, ENIAC, and the stored program computers.

This classification really does not apply to developments in the last sixty years because several kinds of new electro technological devices have been used thereafter.

Classification by Capacity

Computers can be classified according to their capacity. The term ‘capacity’ refers to the volume of work or the data processing capability a computer can handle. Their performance is determined by the amount of data that can be stored in memory, speed of internal operation of the computer, number and type of peripheral devices, amount and type of software available for use with the computer.

The capacity of early generation computers was determined by their physical size - the larger the size, the greater the volume. Recent computer technology however is tending to create smaller machines, making it possible to package equivalent speed and capacity in a smaller format. Computer capacity is currently measured by the number of applications that it can

run rather than by the volume of data it can process. This classification is therefore done as follows:

I MICROCOMPUTERS
 
The Microcomputer has the lowest level capacity. The machine has memories that are generally made of semiconductors fabricated on silicon chips. Large-scale production of silicon chips began in 1971 and this has been of great use in the production of microcomputers. The microcomputer is a digital computer system that is controlled by a stored program that uses a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory (ROM) and a random-access memory (RAM). The ROM defines the instructions to be executed by the computer while RAM is the functional equivalent of computer memory.

The Apple IIe, the Radio Shack TRS-80, and the Genie III are examples of microcomputers and are essentially fourth generation devices. Microcomputers have from 4k to 64k storage location and are capable of handling small, single-business application such as sales analysis, inventory, billing and payroll.

II MINICOMPUTERS

In the 1960s, the growing demand for a smaller stand-alone machine brought about the manufacture of the minicomputer, to handle tasks that large computers could not perform economically. Minicomputer systems provide faster operating speeds and larger storage capacities than microcomputer systems. Operating systems developed for minicomputer systems generally support both multiprogramming and virtual storage. This means that many programs can be run concurrently. This type of computer system is very flexible and can be expanded to meet the needs of users.

Minicomputers usually have from 8k to 256k memory storage location, and a relatively established application software. The PDP-8, the IBM systems 3 and the Honeywell 200 and 1200 computer are typical examples of minicomputers.

III MEDIUM-SIZE COMPUTERS

Medium-size computer systems provide faster operating speeds and larger storage capacities than mini computer systems. They can support a large number of high-speed input/output devices and several disk drives can be used to provide online access to large data files as required for direct access processing and their operating systems also support both multiprogramming and virtual storage. This allows the running of variety of programs concurrently. A medium-size computer can support a management information system and can therefore serve the needs of a large bank, insurance company or university. They usually have memory sizes ranging from 32k to 512k. The IBM System 370, Burroughs 3500 System and NCR Century 200 system are examples of medium-size computers.

IV LARGE COMPUTERS

Large computers are next to Super Computers and have bigger capacity than the Medium-size computers. They usually contain full control systems with minimal operator intervention. Large computer system ranges from single-processing configurations to nationwide computer-based networks involving general large computers. Large computers have storage capacities from 512k to 8192k, and these computers have internal operating speeds measured in terms of nanosecond, as compared to small computers where speed is measured in terms of microseconds. Expandability to 8 or even 16 million characters is possible with some of these systems. Such characteristics permit many data processing jobs to be accomplished concurrently.

Large computers are usually used in government agencies, large corporations and computer services organizations. They are used in complex modeling, or simulation, business operations, product testing, design and engineering work and in the development of space technology. Large computers can serve as server systems where many smaller computers can be connected to it to form a communication network.

V SUPERCOMPUTERS
 
The supercomputers are the biggest and fastest machines today and they are used when billion or even trillions of calculations are required. These machines are applied in nuclear weapon development, accurate weather forecasting and as host processors for local computer. and time sharing networks. Super computers have capabilities far beyond even the traditional large-scale systems. Their speed ranges from 100 million-instruction-per-second to well over three billion. Because of their size, supercomputers sacrifice a certain amount of flexibility. They are therefore not ideal for providing a variety of user services. For this reason, supercomputers may need the assistance of a medium-size general purpose machines (usually called front-end processor) to handle minor programs or perform slower speed or smaller volume operation.

Classification by their basic operating principle

Using this classification technique, computers can be divided into Analog, Digital and Hybrid systems. They are explained as follows:

I ANALOG COMPUTERS

Analog computers were well known in the 1940s although they are now uncommon. In such machines, numbers to be used in some calculation were represented by physical quantities- such as electrical voltages. According to the Penguin Dictionary of Computers (1970), “an analog computer must be able to accept inputs which vary with respect to time and directly

apply these inputs to various devices within the computer which performs the computing operations of additions, subtraction, multiplication, division, integration and function generation….” The computing units of analog computers respond immediately to the changes which they detect in the input variables. Analog computers excel in solving differential equations and are faster than digital computers.

II DIGITAL COMPUTERS

Most computers today are digital. They represent information discretely and use a binary (two-step) system that represents each piece of information as a series of zeroes and ones. The Pocket Webster School & Office Dictionary (1990) simply defines Digital computers as “a computer using numbers in calculating.”Digital computers manipulate most data more easily than analog computers. They are designed to process data in numerical form and their circuits perform directly the mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Because digital information is discrete, it can be copied exactly but it is difficult to make exact copies of analog information.

III HYBRID COMPUTERS

These are machines that can work as both analog and digital computers.

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